Introduction to Geospatial Concepts

Key Points

Introduction to Raster Data
  • Raster data is pixelated data where each pixel is associated with a specific location.

  • Raster data always has an extent and a resolution.

  • The extent is the geographical area covered by a raster.

  • The resolution is the area covered by each pixel of a raster.

Introduction to Vector Data
  • Vector data structures represent specific features on the Earth’s surface along with attributes of those features.

  • Vector objects are either points, lines, or polygons.

Coordinate Reference Systems
  • All geospatial datasets (raster and vector) are associated with a specific coordinate reference system.

  • A coordinate reference system includes datum, projection, and additional parameters specific to the dataset.

The Geospatial Landscape
  • Many software packages exist for working with geospatial data.

  • Command-line programs allow you to automate and reproduce your work.

  • The RStudio GUI provides a user-friendly interface for working with R.